Inventory control and management pdf

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Inventory control and management pdf

Inventory management is the art of managing the inventory in an organization. And software which is a computer-based system used to serve this purpose. This inventory management system or software generally used by many companies and it helps in avoiding overstock and shortage of inventories. Comprised of many components, the inventory management system makes handling the inventories an easy and simpler task. Owing to the inventory management services, the overall efficiency and productivity of the business improve.

It is essential to use such kinds of inventory software for the business as they handle the regular tasks and time consuming chores efficiently and this, in turn, lets the focus be on the production part. With the help of a proper and effective inventory system, an adequate amount of inventory can maintain at all times. The system raises an alarm in the case where the inventory drops down a specific threshold limit or exceeds over and above the prescribed limit.

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In both the conditions, due steps take and the needful is done. Tracking of the asset is yet another feature of asset management. This easy tracking of the product helps a great deal in saving the time and energy of the person in charge of finding it and the same can invest somewhere else and productivity can reap.

In the case of companies that deal primarily with the service industry, this kind of management system helps in tracking the cost of the materials which use for providing services and includes the cost of cleaning, supplies, etc.

Inventory management methods help a great deal in optimizing the inventory. It helps in deciding the reorder point for a manufacturing process, i. It also helps in managing the stock in hand as well the days for which the stock will be available in case there arises some emergency due to which the fresh order cannot be placed for new stock. All of these features of the inventory management system make it one of the most important systems which should integrate within any business for better productivity and more efficient results.

An inventory management system serves many purposes when introduced in an organization by making the work easier and simplified. The objective or purpose behind installing an inventory management system in an organization can sum up as under:. The inventory management program helps the organization in many ways. It helps a lot in maintaining the inventory in adequate quantity and supplying the same at desired timings. It makes the overall functioning of the organization smoother.

There are several advantages of inventory management software in a business setting, which list below:. If taken into consideration, the inventory of any organization comprises of the maximum investment along with the workforce employed.

So, there lies a need to maintain the inventory in the best possible manner. The responsible person should look at the fact that there is no unnecessary wastage of the inventory by overstocking and there is no shortage as well at the same time. And to maintain the inventory in the best possible manner, organizations use inventory management software.

The use of this software help in cutting down the expenses greatly. Any automated system saves on to the time as compared to the manual one. Once the system automated then there is a great deal of time that saves. This automation, in turn, helps in increasing the overall efficiency of the organization.

With the help of the software, many tasks perform automatically like a collection of data, creation of records, conducting calculations, etc. Optimization of resources is yet another benefit of the inventory management software. This kind of management helps the wholesalers, distributors, retailers, etc in organizing their warehouses.

Proper groups can form of the products which sold together or the ones for which the demand is high, they can store in large quantities as compared to the ones for which the demand is low.

Likewise, proper arrangements can make regarding the inventory and the warehouse can organize in an optimum manner. This advantage of the system further helps in making well informed decisions as the data can be easily and successfully accessed through various devices like laptops, mobiles, etc.

With the use of the management system, the user can easily get an insight of the trends currently following.Every organization tries to maintain optimum inventory to be able to meet its requirements and avoid over or under inventory that can impact the financial condition.

Read More. Inventory management and supply chain management are the backbone of any business operations. Important concepts of Inventory Management are discussed in detail.

Lecture 52 Inventory Control

Inventory is a necessary evil that every organization would have to maintain for various purposes. Reasons why organizations maintain Inventory are discussed in detail. Inventory Management requires smart planning and continuous monitoring of the inventory levels coupled with quick decision-making. Many organizations generally tend to avoid holding inventories except at certain times. Inventory is categorized into two types based on the demand pattern, which creates the need for inventory.

The two types of demand are Independent Demand and Dependant Demand for inventories. Inventory costs are basically categorized into three headings - Ordering Costs, Carrying Costs and Shortage or stock out Cost and Cost of Replenishment. In most of the organizations inventory is categorized according to ABC Classification method, which is based on pareto principle.

The article discusses about the advantages and disadvantages of ABC Classification. Inventory control is exercised through inventory audits and cycle counts. An inventory audit essentially comprises of auditing the books stocks and transactions and matching physical stocks with the book stock. The inter-dependence of transactions which are sequential and parallel, renders inventory susceptible to inefficiencies occurring in operations, transactions, and documentation over a period of time.

The efficiencies of inventory management are largely dependent upon the skills and knowledge of the inventory planners, the focus and involvement of management and the management policies coupled with the inventory management system. To ensure Inventory control is maintained there are some critical points we need to focus upon.

All these points are discussed in detail. Every unit of Inventory has an economic value in the books of the company. Therefore as an asset one needs to have a control over the inventory and ensure that the books stock matches with the physical stock.

In any business, it is essential to have optimum inventory at all times.Picture a successful retail business in your head.

If the answers are yes, both retailers probably have a good handle on their physical inventories. Inventory management is the basis of a well-functioning retail business. Inventory management systems track the lifecycle of inventory and stock as it comes and goes out of your business. You get stuck with too much inventory or an incorrect amount of product.

The list is endless.

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Inventory management processes are imperative to succeed as a retailer of any kind — ecommercemulti-channelbrick-and-mortaromni-channel — if you want to seriously compete. The importance of inventory management simply cannot be ignored. Inventory management is a step in the supply chain where inventory and stock quantities are tracked in and out of your warehouse.

The goal of inventory management systems is to know where your inventory is at any given time and how much of it you have in order to manage inventory levels correctly. Some companies may opt to scan in inventory via a barcode scanner to increase efficiency along pick routes and accuracy.

Unlike an ERP systeman inventory management system focuses on one supply chain process. They often come with the ability to integrate with other software systems — point of sale, channel management, shipping — so you can build a personalized integration stack to the needs of your unique business.

Inventory management is the fundamental building block to longevity. When your inventory is properly organized, the rest of your supply-chain management will fall into place. Without it, you risk a litany of mistakes like mis-shipments, out of stocks, overstocks, mis-picks, and so on.

Proper warehouse management is key. Mis-picks result from incorrect paper pick lists, disorganized shelf labels, or just a messy warehouse in general.

Mis-shipments are a direct result of mis-picks at the beginning of the inventory process, and are also a result of a lack in quality control procedures.

Out of stocks and overstocks occur when a company uses manual methods to place orders without having a full grasp on the state of their inventory. This is a not a good predictor for inventory forecasting and results in too much stock or too little. All of these mistakes will not only cost you money, but also cost you in wasted labor spent correcting the mistakes later. And your customer reviews and loyalty take a negative hit as well.

Economic order quantity, or EOQ, is a formula for the ideal order quantity a company needs to purchase for its inventory with a set of variables like total costs of production, demand rate, and other factors. The overall goal of EOQ is to minimize related costs. The formula is used to identify the greatest number of product units to order to minimize buying.

inventory control and management pdf

The formula also takes the number of units in the delivery of and storing of inventory unit costs. This helps free up tied cash in inventory for most companies. On the supplier side, minimum order quantity MOQ is the smallest amount of set stock a supplier is willing to sell. For example, inventory items that cost more to produce typically have a smaller MOQ as opposed to cheaper items that are easier and more cost effective to make.

This inventory categorization technique splits subjects into three categories to identify items that have a heavy impact on overall inventory cost. Just-in-time JIT inventory management is a technique that arranges raw material orders from suppliers in direct connection with production schedules. JIT is a great way to reduce inventory costs. Companies receive inventory on an as-needed basis instead of ordering too much and risking dead stock.

Dead stock is inventory that was never sold or used by customers before being removed from sale status.

Inventory Control and Management (2nd ed.)

Safety stock inventory management is extra inventory being ordered beyond expected demand.Inventory Management is a practice of tracking and controlling the inventory orders, its usage and storage along with the management of finished goods that are ready for sale. Improper inventory management can lead to an increase in storage cost, working capital crunch, wastage of labor resources, increase in idle time, disruption of the supply chain, etc.

All this leads to a reduction in sales and unsatisfied customers.

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Therefore, inventory management is an important aspect of the business which the management cannot afford to ignore. Effective and efficient management of the same is a must. There are various types of inventory management techniques which can help in efficient inventory management.

They are as follows:. It is an inventory management technique where inventory items are classified into three categories namely: A, B, and C. The items in A category of inventory are closely controlled as it consists of high-priced inventory which may be less in number but are very expensive. The items in B category are relatively lesser expensive inventory as compared to A category and the number of items in B category is moderate so control level is also moderate.

The C category consists of a high number of inventory items which require lesser investments so the control level is minimum. In Just in Time method of inventory control, the company keeps only as much inventory as it needs during the production process. With no excess inventory in hand, the company saves the cost of storage and insurance. The company orders further inventory when the old stock of inventory is close to replenishment.

This is a little risky method of inventory management because a little delay in ordering new inventory can lead to stock out situation. Thus this method requires proper planning so that new orders can be timely placed. Material Requirements Planning is an inventory control method in which the manufacturers order the inventory after considering the sales forecast. MRP system integrates data from various areas of the business where inventory exists. Based on the data and demand in the market, the manager would carefully place the order for new inventory with the material suppliers.

Economic Order Quantity technique focuses on taking a decision regarding how much quantity of inventory should the company order at any point of time and when should they place the order.

In this model, the store manager will reorder the inventory when it reaches the minimum level. EOQ model helps to save the ordering cost and carrying costs incurred while placing the order. With the EOQ model, the organization is able to place the right quantity of inventory. The minimum safety stock is the level of inventory which an organization maintains to avoid the stock-out situation. It is the level when we place the new order before the existing inventory is over. Like for example, if the total inventory in an organization is 18, units, they place a new order when the inventory reaches 15, units.

inventory control and management pdf

Therefore, the 3, units of inventory shall form part of the minimum safety stock level. Organizations mainly use this technique for controlling spare parts of inventory. Like, a higher level of inventory is required for vital parts that are very costly and essential for production.It looks after the units in a firm and makes sure that they are in a moderate amount which does not affect the performance of a company. So, because of it, a separate management department has to be established and this also enhances the efficiency of a company.

Like other branches of management, inventory management is also a vital branch of management that aids in the good results of a company. The below figure explains about core inventory management process and functions:. The relationship between a function of inventory management team and inventory management systems:. The below diagram explains about the functional access of relationship between the function of inventory management and the function of inventory management systems:.

All the organizations have a supply of inventory because of below reasons:.

inventory control and management pdf

In making the decisions which affect the size of inventory, the below costs have to be considered and they are:. The single period inventory models are used in following services:. There are two types of multiperiod inventory systems and they are:.

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It is a vital parameter for managers to identify the running of products by availing the logic of inventory control. The relation between prices of sold product, value of average inventory and inventory turn. All you need to do is just click on the download link and get it.

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Inventory Management Techniques

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Hello Sumit, Please write more abount Inventory Managerment challenges and its solutions.What is inventory control? At first glance, inventory control and inventory management seem similar. Although these two terms are often used interchangeably, they actually deal with different aspects of inventory optimization. Inventory control involves warehouse management. This includes:. The goal of inventory control procedures is to maximize profits with minimum inventory investment, without impacting customer satisfaction levels.

Inventory managementon the other hand, is a broader term that covers how you obtain, store, and profit from raw materials and finished goods alike. The right stock, at the right levels, in the right place, at the right time, at the right cost.

When it comes to inventory control procedures, less is definitely more. EOQ is the optimum inventory you should purchase to minimize the costs of ordering and holding. The Reorder point determines the right time to order more stock. Calculating this means adding together your lead time demand in days and safety stock in days:. Any inventory control system worth your time will combine EOQ and reorder points with low-stock alerts to send notifications automatically.

It may seem like a simple concept, but it really does make a difference to have your stock meticulously organized. This includes labeling your stock with SKUs that are easily understandable and simple to read. Start with an initial stocktake and then use the right inventory management techniques to keep track of movements and levels. Quality control is another essential part of inventory control. Choose a supplier that has the same quality standards as you do and get plenty of samples before you develop a long term relationship.

Once you have your suppliers, batch tracking ensures your stock consistently meets your highest quality standards.

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Even with EOQ and reorder points set, anticipating future demand is notoriously difficult. To avoid obsolescence and spoilage, inventory forecasting must be utilized to keep inventory levels low yet adequate to match customer demands.

Even big players fall victim to improper inventory forecasting. Support Contact us Log in. Chapter 7 Inventory control stock control : Definition, systems, and management What is inventory control?

Inventory management software for your business. Start a free trial. What is inventory management? Real-time inventory visibility 2. Optimization via smart insights 3. Integrated supply-chain automation Inventory best practices 1. Start with your own data 2. Maximize inventory turnover 3. Learn your ABCs 4. Forecast demand 5. Automate everything you can 6.The publisher has supplied this book in DRM Free form with digital watermarking.

The publisher has supplied this book in encrypted form, which means that you need to install free software in order to unlock and read it.

To read this ebook on a mobile device phone or tablet you'll need to install one of these free apps:. The publisher has set limits on how much of this ebook you may print or copy.

Understanding Inventory Control

See details. Toggle navigation. New to eBooks. Inventory Control and Management 2nd ed. Donald Waters. This title will be released on. This eBook is no longer available for sale. This eBook is not available in your country.

inventory control and management pdf

Holding stock is expensive - problems of inventory control almost universal. Over the past decade organisations have been trying to improve customer service while lowering stocks and increasing the speed of material flow through their supply chains. This completely updated new edition reviews current thinking on inventory management.

It emphasises the growth of e-commerce, and the trend away from classical models based on economic order quantities and towards dependent demand systems. The author sets inventory management in its broader context, discussing the important trends and pressures for change. The main approaches are discussed and evaluated, giving the reader a broad appreciation of the principles involved. Some quantitative ideas are developed in the text, but the author has kept the mathematics to a minimum, focusing on practical examples and calculations on spreadsheets.

Assuming no prior knowledge of the subject area, this book provides students of management, operations management, management science and production - as well as practitioners- with an indispensable guide to inventory control.

Supplementary material for lecturers adopting Inventory Control and Management is available. In The Press. About The Author. Customer Reviews.


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